History of Educational Technology

There is not any written proof which may inform us precisely who has coined the phrase instructional expertise. Different educationists, scientists and philosophers at totally different time intervals have put forwarded totally different definitions of Educational Technology. Educational expertise is a multifaceted and built-in course of involving individuals, process, concepts, gadgets, and group, the place expertise from totally different fields of science is borrowed as per the necessity and requirement of training for implementing, evaluating, and managing options to these issues concerned in all elements of human studying.

Educational expertise, broadly talking, has handed by way of 5 phases.

The first stage of instructional expertise is coupled with the use of aids like charts, maps, symbols, fashions, specimens and concrete supplies. The time period instructional expertise was used as synonyms to audio-visual aids.

The second stage of instructional expertise is related to the ‘digital revolution’ with the introduction and institution of subtle {hardware} and software program. Use of numerous audio-visual aids like projector, magic lanterns, tape-recorder, radio and tv introduced a revolutionary change within the instructional state of affairs. Accordingly, instructional expertise idea was taken in phrases of these subtle devices and equipments for efficient presentation of educational supplies.

The third stage of instructional expertise is linked with the event of mass media which in flip led to ‘communication revolution’ for educational functions. Computer-assisted Instruction (CAI) used for training since 1950s additionally grew to become well-liked throughout this period.

The fourth stage of instructional expertise is discernible by the individualized course of of instruction. The invention of programmed studying and programmed instruction offered a brand new dimension to instructional expertise. A system of self-learning based mostly on self-instructional supplies and educating machines emerged.

The newest idea of instructional expertise is influenced by the idea of system engineering or system strategy which focuses on language laboratories, educating machines, programmed instruction, multimedia applied sciences and the use of the pc in instruction. According to it, instructional expertise is a scientific manner of designing, finishing up and evaluating the entire course of of educating and studying in phrases of particular targets based mostly on analysis.

Educational expertise in the course of the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age

Educational expertise, regardless of the uncertainty of the origin of the time period, may be traced again to the time of the three-age system periodization of human prehistory; specifically the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age.

Duringthe Stone Age, ignition of hearth by rubbing stones, manufacture of numerous handmade weapon and utensils from stones and clothes apply have been some of the easy technological developments of utmost significance. A fraction of Stone Age individuals developed ocean-worthy outrigger canoe ship expertise emigrate from one place to a different throughout the Ocean, by which they developed their first casual training of knowledge of the ocean currents, climate situations, crusing apply, astronavigation, and star maps. During the later Stone Age interval (Neolithic interval),for agricultural apply, polished stone instruments have been produced from a range of laborious rocks largely by digging underground tunnels, which may be thought-about as the primary steps in mining expertise. The polished axes have been so efficient that even after look of bronze and iron; individuals used it for clearing forest and the institution of crop farming.

Although Stone Age cultures left no written data, however archaeological evidences proved their shift from nomadic life to agricultural settlement. Ancient instruments conserved in numerous museums, cave work like Altamira Cave in Spain, and different prehistoric artwork, such because the Venus of Willendorf, Mother Goddess from Laussel, France and so forth. are some of the evidences in favour of their cultures.

Neolithic Revolution of Stone Age resulted into the looks of Bronze Age with growth of agriculture, animal domestication, and the adoption of everlasting settlements. For these practices Bronze Age individuals additional developed steel smelting, with copper and later bronze, an alloy of tin and copper, being the supplies of their alternative.

The Iron Age individuals changed bronze and developed the knowledge of iron smelting expertise to decrease the price of residing since iron utensils have been stronger and cheaper than bronze equivalents. In many Eurasian cultures, the Iron Age was the final interval earlier than the event of written scripts.

Educational expertise in the course of the interval of Ancient civilizations

According to Paul Saettler, 2004, Educational expertise may be traced again to the time when tribal monks systematized our bodies of knowledge and historic cultures invented pictographs or signal writing to document and transmit info. In each stage of human civilization, one can discover an educational approach or set of procedures supposed to implement a specific tradition which have been additionally supported by quantity of investigations and evidences. The extra superior the tradition, the extra advanced grew to become the expertise of instruction designed to mirror explicit methods of particular person and social behaviour supposed to run an informed society. Over centuries, every vital shift in instructional values, targets or targets led to various applied sciences of instruction.

The biggest advances in expertise and engineering got here with the rise of the traditional civilizations. These advances stimulated and educated different societies on the earth to undertake new methods of residing and governance.

The Indus Valley Civilization was an early Bronze Age civilization which was situated within the northwestern area of the Indian Subcontinent. The civilization was primarily flourished across the Indus River basin of the Indus and the Punjab area, extending upto the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley and the Ganges-Yamuna Doab, (most of the half is underneath right this moment’s Pakistan and the western states of modern-day India in addition to some half of the civilization extending upto southeastern Afghanistan, and the easternmost half of Balochistan, Iran).

There is a long run controversy to make sure concerning the language that the Harappan individuals spoke. It is assumed that their writing was at the least appears to be or a pictographic script. The script seems to have had about 400 primary indicators, with heaps of variations. People write their script with the path usually from proper to left. Most of the writing was discovered on seals and sealings which have been most likely utilized in commerce and official & administrative work.

Harappan individuals had the knowledge of the measuring instruments of size, mass, and time. They have been the primary on the earth to develop a system of uniform weights and measures.

In a examine carried out by P. N. Rao et al. in 2009, printed in Science, pc scientists discovered that the Indus script’s sample is nearer to that of spoken phrases, which supported the proposed speculation that it codes for an as-yet-unknown language.

According to the Chinese Civilization, some of the main techno-offerings from China embody paper, early seismological detectors, bathroom paper, matches, iron plough, the multi-tube seed drill, the suspension bridge, the wheelbarrow, the parachute, pure fuel as gas, the magnetic compass, the raised-relief map, the blast furnace, the propeller, the crossbow, the South Pointing Chariot, and gun powder. With the invent of paper they’ve given their first step in the direction of developments of instructional expertise by additional culturing totally different handmade merchandise of paper as means of visible aids.

Ancient Egyptian language was at one level one of the longest surviving and used languages on the earth. Their script was made up of photos of the true issues like birds, animals, totally different instruments, and so forth. These photos are popularly referred to as hieroglyph. Their language was made up of above 500 hieroglyphs that are often called hieroglyphics. On the stone monuments or tombs which have been found and rescued latter on supplies the proof of existence of many varieties of creative hieroglyphics in historic Egypt.

Educational expertise throughout Medieval and Modern Period

Paper and the pulp papermaking course of which was developed in China in the course of the early 2nd century AD, was carried to the Middle East and was unfold to Mediterranean by the Muslim conquests. Evidences assist {that a} paper mill was additionally established in Sicily within the 12th century. The discovery of spinning wheel elevated the productiveness of thread making course of to an excellent extent and when Lynn White added the spinning wheel with rising provide of rags, this led to the manufacturing of low cost paper, which was a chief issue within the growth of printing expertise.

The invention of the printing press was taken place in roughly 1450 AD, by Johannes Gutenburg, a German inventor. The invention of printing press was a chief developmental issue within the historical past of instructional expertise to convey the instruction as per the necessity of the advanced and advanced-technology cultured society.

In the pre-industrial phases, whereas trade was merely the handwork at artisan degree, the educational processes have been relied closely upon easy issues just like the slate, the horn e book, the blackboard, and chalk. It was restricted to a single textual content e book with just a few illustrations. Educational expertise was thought-about synonymous to easy aids like charts and photos.

The yr 1873 could also be thought-about a landmark within the early historical past of expertise of training or audio-visual training. An exhibition was held in Vienna at worldwide degree during which an American faculty received the admiration of the educators for the exhibition of maps, charts, textbooks and different equipments.

Maria Montessori (1870-1952), internationally famend little one educator and the originator of Montessori Method exerted a dynamic impression on instructional expertise by way of her growth of graded supplies designed to offer for the right sequencing of material for every particular person learner. Modern instructional expertise suggests many extension of Montessori’s concept of ready little one centered atmosphere.

In1833, Charles Babbage’s design of a common function computing machine laid the muse of the trendy pc and in 1943, the primary computing machine as per hello design was constructed by International Business Machines Corporation in USA. The Computer Assisted instruction (CAI) during which the pc features primarily as a tutor in addition to the Talking Type author was developed by O.Ok. Moore in 1966. Since 1974, computer systems are curiously utilized in training in colleges, faculties and universities.

In the start of the 19th century, there have been noteworthy modifications within the discipline of training. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), proper from its begin of faculty broadcasts in 1920 had maintained fast tempo in making sound contribution to formal training. In the USA, by 1952, 20 states had the availability for instructional broadcasting. Parallel to this time about 98% of the colleges in United Kingdom have been geared up with radios and there have been common every day programmes.

Sidney L. Pressey, a psychologist of Ohio state college developed a self-teaching machine referred to as ‘Drum Tutor’ in 1920. Professor Skinner, nevertheless, in his well-known article ‘Science of Learning and artwork of Teaching’ printed in 1945 pleaded for the applying of the knowledge derived from behavioral psychology to classroom procedures and urged automated educating gadgets as means of doing so.

Although the primary sensible use of Regular tv broadcasts was in Germany in 1929 and in 1936 the Olympic Games in Berlin have been broadcasted by way of tv stations in Berlin, Open circuit tv started for use primarily for broadcasting programmes for leisure in 1950. Since 1960, tv is used for instructional functions.

In 1950, Brynmor, in England, used instructional technological steps for the primary time. It is to be cared that in 1960, consequently of industrial revolution in America and Russia, different international locations additionally began progressing within the filed of instructional expertise. In this fashion, the start of instructional expertise came about in 1960 from America and Russia and now it has reached England, Europe and India.

During the time of round 1950s, new technocracy was turning it attraction to educations when there was a steep scarcity of lecturers in America and subsequently an pressing want of instructional expertise was felt. Dr. Alvin C. Eurich and slightly later his affiliate, Dr. Alexander J. Stoddard launched mass manufacturing expertise in America.

Team educating had its origin in America within the mid of 1950’s and was first began within the yr 1955 at Harvard University as an element of internship plan.

In the yr 1956, Benjamin Bloom from USA launched the taxonomy of instructional targets by way of his publication, “The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, The Classification of Educational Goals, Handbook I: Cognitive Domain”.

In 1961, Micro educating approach was first adopted by Dwight W. Allen and his co-workers at Stanford University in USA.

Electronics is the principle expertise being developed at first of 21st century. Broadband Internet entry grew to become well-liked and occupied virtually all of the essential places of work and academic locations and even in widespread locations in developed international locations with the benefit of connecting house computer systems with music libraries and cellphones.

Today’s classroom is extra prone to be a expertise lab, a room with rows of college students utilizing web linked or Wi-Fi enabled laptops, palmtops, notepad, or maybe college students are attending a video conferencing or digital classroom or might have been listening to a podcast or taking in a video lecture. Rapid technological modifications within the discipline of instructional have created new methods to show and to study. Technological modifications additionally motivated the lecturers to entry a range of info on a world scale by way of the Internet, to boost their classes in addition to to make them competent skilled of their space of concern. At the identical time, college students can make the most of huge assets of the Internet to complement their studying expertise to manage up with altering development of the society. Now a days college students as properly lecturers are attending seminars, conferences, workshops at nationwide and worldwide degree through the use of the multimedia techno-resources like PowerPoint and even they pursue a range of essential programs of their alternative in distance mode by way of on-line studying methods. Online studying facility has opened infinite quantity of doorways of alternatives for right this moment’s learner to make their life happier than ever earlier than.

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Source by Sanjoy Deka

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